Posterior Shoulder Instability Classification, Assessment, and Management: An International Delphi Study Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: To reach consensus among international shoulder experts on the most appropriate assessment and management strategies for posterior shoulder instability (PSI). DESIGN: Delphi. METHODS: In phase 1 of the study, we reviewed the literature, generated the Delphi items, created the survey, and identified clinical experts. In phase 2 of the study, clinical shoulder experts (physical therapists, orthopaedic surgeons, sports medicine physicians, and researchers) participated in a 3-round e-Delphi survey. For consensus, we required a minimum of 70% agreement per round. Descriptive statistics were used to present the characteristics of the respondents, the response rate of the experts in each round, and the consensus for PSI classification, assessment, and management. RESULTS: Round 3 was completed by 47 individuals from 5 different countries. The response rate ranged from 57/70 (81%) to 47/50 (94%) per round. Respondents agreed on 3 subgroups to define PSI: traumatic (100% agreement), microtraumatic (98% agreement), and atraumatic (98% agreement). CONCLUSION: International shoulder experts agreed that the clinical presentation, management strategy, and outcome expectations differ for traumatic, microtraumatic, and atraumatic PSI. Their recommendations provide a framework for managing these subgroups, with additional consideration of sport and work participation and subsequent risks. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020;50(7):373-380. Epub 29 Apr 2020. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9225.


  • Sadi, Jackie
  • Torchia, Erik
  • Faber, Kenneth J
  • MacDermid, Joy
  • Lalonde, Corinne
  • Watson, Lyn
  • Weber, Marjorie
  • Wu, Nan

publication date

  • July 2020