Heart Failure–Related Mortality and Hospitalization in the Year Following Admission to a Long-Term Care Facility: The Geriatric Outcomes and Longitudinal Decline in Heart Failure (GOLD-HF) Study
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BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is common in long-term care facilities (LTCs). This study compared mortality and hospitalization rates and examined predictors of these outcomes among new LTC residents with and without HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective cohort study followed 546 newly admitted residents from 42 LTCs for up to 1 year. Health information was collected from participant and caregiver interviews, physicians' records, diagnostic procedures, and hospitalization records. Multivariate logistic regression modeling determined predictors of hospitalization among residents, and Cox proportional hazards regression determined predictors for time to mortality. HF prevalence was 21.4%. The sample was predominantly (>70%) female, and individuals with HF were significantly older with higher prevalence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Overall annual mortality and hospitalization rates were 24% and 27%, respectively. Among residents with HF, 42% died and 31% were hospitalized within 1 year. Among residents with HF, use of major tranquilizers was the strongest predictor of sooner mortality; use of anticoagulants and major tranquilizers also increased mortality risk, whereas higher baseline function was associated with longer time to mortality. History of peripheral vascular disease was the strongest predictor of hospitalizations among residents with HF, and use of antiplatelet agents and history of any smoking exposure increased this risk. CONCLUSIONS: Among LTC residents, HF is associated with high mortality and hospitalization rates. Many factors contribute to mortality and hospitalizations among residents with HF, and comprehensive HF management programs are needed to improve outcomes.
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