Electrical Bone Stimulation: An Overview and its Use in High Risk and Charcot Foot and Ankle Reconstructions
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Since early work done in the 1950s on the "piezoelectricity of bone," a growing body of basic science and clinical evidence suggests the use of electrical bone stimulation as an adjunct in the treatment of foot and ankle nonunions, fusions, and Charcot arthropathy. Both implantable designs (that allow for direct constant stimulation of bone) and nonimplantable (such as pulsed and combined electromagnetic fields) devices have been studied. Ongoing research continues to support the potential usefulness of these modalities.
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