Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy
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BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies and, if not treated, up to 30% of mothers will develop acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with low birthweight and preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the development of pyelonephritis and the risk of low birthweight and preterm delivery. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was poor. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.48). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of low birthweight babies (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.89) but a difference in preterm delivery was not seen. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. A reduction in low birthweight is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this association should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of the included studies.
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