Sleep quality and its correlates in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional design
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PURPOSE: Since sympathovagal imbalance influences clinical phenomena, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleeping problems, there should be correlations between these conditions. We hypothesized that sleep quality would be correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood pressure and the presence of diabetes. METHODS: We included 303 CKD patients in this study. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Short Form 36 Quality of Life Health Survey Questions (SF-36) to screen sleeping disturbances, depression and quality of life, respectively. A chart review was performed for the patients' demographics, diagnoses and certain laboratory parameters--including blood glucose, hemoglobin, albumin, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and eGFR. Multivariate logistic regression models were employed to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 303 patients in this cross-sectional study. A total of 101 patients were on dialysis. In the univariate models, gender, calcium and mental component summary scores (MCS) reached a significant level of 0.1, and those covariates were included in the multivariate analysis. The reduced models included gender and MCS categories. Female gender increases the risk for poor sleep quality. In our report, evidence suggests MCS domain scores are inversely related to the risk for impaired sleep. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated a high burden of sleep disturbances in kidney patients. In addition, female gender and having low MCS scores may influence sleep quality in kidney patients.
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