The changing clinical profile of coronary artery bypass graft patients, 1970-89.
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OBJECTIVE: To review the changing clinical profile of isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients at the University of Alberta Hospitals during the past two decades. DESIGN: Data were obtained retrospectively by review of patients' hospital charts and cardiologists' charts. The three patient cohorts consisted of the first 411 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery between 1970 and 1974, 302 consecutive patients who had CABG surgery in 1984 and 346 consecutive patients who had the operation in 1989. RESULTS: Patients who underwent CABG surgery in 1984 and 1989 were older than patients undergoing the same operation in the 1970s. Emergency and/or urgent operations and the number of patients with prior myocardial infarct were increased significantly in 1984 and 1989. The incidence of patients with multiple vessel disease and left main stem stenosis increased significantly over the two decades. The number of bypass grafts per patient and the use of internal mammary grafts have increased since 1970. The endarterectomy procedure was performed less frequently in 1984 and 1989. The use of radial artery grafts has been discontinued. Perioperative mortality remained stable throughout the study period despite an increasing incidence of high risk patients. The major cause of death was pump failure. The incidence of peripostoperative myocardial infarct was higher in the 1970s. A multivariate analysis of the 1984 and 1989 cohorts was performed to identify temporal trends in risk factors. Emergency surgery, preoperative heart failure, age (older than 65 years), prior CABG surgery and preoperative renal failure are significant predictors of operative motility. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical profile of patients for isolated CABG surgery has changed over the years. The mortality rate has been stable over two decades despite the advancement of medical and surgical practices, representing a balance of increasingly high risk patients presenting for CABG surgery.
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