Primary Stenting Versus Balloon Angioplasty in Occluded Coronary Arteries
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BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty (PTCA) of occluded coronary arteries is limited by high rates of restenosis and reocclusion. Although stenting improves results in anatomically simple occlusions, its effect on patency and clinical outcome in a broadly selected population with occluded coronary arteries is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen centers randomized 410 patients with nonacute native coronary occlusions to PTCA or primary stenting with the heparin-coated Palmaz-Schatz stent. The primary end point, failure of sustained patency, was determined at 6-month angiography. Repeat target-vessel revascularization, adverse cardiovascular events, and angiographic restenosis (>50% diameter stenosis) constituted secondary end points. Sixty percent of patients had occlusions of >6 weeks' duration, baseline flow was TIMI grade 0 in 64%, and median treated segment length was 30.5 mm. With 95.6% angiographic follow-up, primary stenting resulted in a 44% reduction in failed patency (10.9% versus 19.5%, P=0.024) and a 45% reduction in clinically driven target-vessel revascularization at 6 months (15.4% versus 8.4%, P=0.03). The incidence of adverse cardiovascular events was similar for both strategies (PTCA, 23.6%; stent, 23.3%; P=NS). Stenting resulted in a larger mean 6-month minimum lumen dimension (1.48 versus 1.23 mm, P<0.01) and a reduced binary restenosis rate (55% versus 70%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Primary stenting of broadly selected nonacute coronary occlusions is superior to PTCA alone, improving late patency and reducing restenosis and target-vessel revascularization.
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