Assessment of Pituitary Gonadal Axis and Sperm Parameters in Anemic Eugonadal Males Before and After Correction of Iron Deficiency Anemia.
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ABSTRACT: :Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional anemia worldwide. Anemia imposes a significant hypoxic environment in different organs and tissues including the testes. This study evaluated the effect of treatment of IDA on the pituitary gonadal axis (Serum FSH, LH, Testosterone) and sperm parameters in adult eugonadal males. METHODOLOGY: A hospital based interventional, analytic study was conducted at a tertiary care center among 25 eugonadal males (fully sexually developed, fertile) with newly diagnosed and untreated IDA, admitted in medicine wards and not suffering from any inflammatory disorders (excluded by C-reactive protein) after exclusion of patients having other forms of anemia/ hemoglobinopathies/ any malignancy/having MCV >80 fL, aplastic anemia and primary hypogonadism. Sexual maturation was assessed according to maturity stages 5. Investigations were performed before and 6 weeks after treatment of IDA with intravenous iron sucrose included CBC, peripheral blood smear, serum ferritin, serum iron, TIBC, serum FSH, serum LH, serum Testosterone and semen analysis (Semen volume, Sperm count, Sperm motility and Sperm morphology). RESULTS: The change in mean Hb level before (5.66 ± 1.97gm/dl) and after treatment (11.96 ± 0.87 gm/dl) was statistically significant. (P<0.001) Patients who had subnormal and normal serum level of FSH, LH, Testosterone and sperm parameters before treatment were divided into group A and group B respectively. Serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone along with sperm parameters significantly improved after correction of anemia (p<0.01). The mean change in these parameters was significantly higher in patients having subnormal value of these parameters before treatment (Group A) than in patients having normal pre-treatment level (Group B) (p<0.01). The level of anemia (hemoglobin) had significant positive correlation with serum FSH, serum LH, serum testosterone levels and sperm parameters (semen volume, sperm count, sperm morphology, RPM and sperm motility) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: IDA had significant negative association with the pituitary gonadal axis (Serum FSH, LH, Testosterone) and sperm parameters in adult eugonadal males. The serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone along with sperm parameters significantly improved after correction of anemia, especially in patients having subnormal value of these parameters.
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