[Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries in a case-control study based on the INTERHEART study]. Journal Articles uri icon

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  • An international, standardised case-control study was established to assess the importance of risk factors for coronary heart disease worldwide. From 52 countries representing every inhabited continent 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. The relation of smoking, history of hypertension and/or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins and psychosocial factors to myocardial infarction was reported. Odds ratios and their 99% confidence limits for the association of risk factors to acute myocardial infarction and their population attributable risks were calculated. Smoking (odds ratio 2.87 for current vs never, population attributable risk 35.7% for current and former smoker vs never), raised apolipoprotein B / apolipoprotein A1 ratio (3.25 for top vs lowest quintile, population attributable risk 49.2 for top four quintiles vs lowest quintile), history of hypertension (1.91, 17.9%), diabetes (2.37, 9.9%), abdominal obesity (1.12 for top vs lowest tertile and 1.62 for middle vs lowest tertile, 20.1% for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), psychosocial factors (2.67, 32.5), daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.70, 13.7% for lack of daily consumption), regular alcohol consumption (0.91, 6.7%), and regular physical activity (0.86, 12.2%) were all significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p < 0.0001 for all risk factors, and p = 0.03 for alcohol). These associations were noted in men and women, old and young and in all regions of the world. Collectively these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the population attributable risk in men and 94% in women. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide.


  • Yusuf, Salim
  • Gyárfás, Iván
  • Keltai, Mátyás
  • Salim, Yusuf

publication date

  • April 16, 2006

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