Differential Regulation of Adiponectin Receptor Gene Expression by Adiponectin and Leptin in Myotubes Derived from Obese and Diabetic Individuals*
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the regulation of adiponectin receptors 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) gene expression in primary skeletal muscle myotubes, derived from human donors, after exposure to globular adiponectin (gAd) and leptin. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Four distinct primary cell culture groups were established [Lean, Obese, Diabetic, Weight Loss (Wt Loss); n = 7 in each] from rectus abdominus muscle biopsies obtained from surgical patients. Differentiated myotube cultures were exposed to gAd (0.1 microg/mL) or leptin (2.5 microg/mL) for 6 hours. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: AdipoR1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle myotubes derived from Lean subjects (p < 0.05) was stimulated 1.8-fold and 2.5-fold with gAd and leptin, respectively. No increase in AdipoR1 gene expression was measured in myotubes derived from Obese, Diabetic, or Wt Loss subjects. AdipoR2 mRNA expression was unaltered after gAd and leptin exposure in all myotube groups. DISCUSSION: Adiponectin and leptin are rapid and potent stimulators of AdipoR1 in myotubes derived from lean healthy individuals. This effect was abolished in myotubes derived from obese, obese diabetic subjects, and obese-prone individuals who had lost significant weight after bariatric surgery. The incapacity of skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic individuals to respond to exogenous adiponectin and leptin may be further suppressed as a result of impaired regulation of the AdipoR1 gene.
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