Two approaches to the study of the kindling phenomenon were discussed: 1) an attempt to identify the pattern of neural activity required to produce the changes underlying kindling and 2) an investigation into the nature of those changes. Three experiments were reported that used the neocortical transcallosal system as a monosynaptic model system in which to study possible synaptic mechanisms of the kindling effect. Experiment I showed an increase in the transcallosal evoked potential following neocortical kindling. Experiment II showed an increase in the strength of the transcallosal evoked cell discharge following neocortical kindling. Experiment III reported the results of an histological examination of neocortical tissue in kindled and non-kindled animals using the Golgi-Cox technique. Spine density, spine dimension and branching were measured for pyramidal cell apical dendrites. No differences were found between primary and secondary (contralateral) foci or between kindled and non-kindled animals.