Comparison of 810 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths for interstitial laser photocoagulation in rabbit brain
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This laboratory animal study is a comparison of Nd:YAG 1064 nm and diode 810 nm laser wavelengths in brain interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP). Specific goals were to identify potential complications and physical characteristics of the thermal damage at both wavelengths prior to undertaking a clinical trial in humans. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 ILP illuminations were performed in vivo in the brains of 33 anesthetized rabbits using plane-cut fiber tips implanted directly or through catheters, and diffusing fiber tips. Delivered powers ranged from 1.1 to 4.2 W. Exposures ranged from 300 to 900 s. Survival ranged from 0 to 48 h. Experiments were performed in animals with and without VX-2 brain tumors. RESULTS: Thermal damage from 1.1 W at 810 nm was similar to that from 1.6 W at 1064 nm, but more pronounced. With plane-cut fiber tips, there was a greater propensity for severe physical effects (smoke, charring, bubbling, surface damage) at 810 nm than at 1064 nm, yet hemorrhage, thrombosis and vapor dissemination were observed at both wavelengths, in both normal brain and tumor. CONCLUSIONS: For ILP in brain, 1064 nm may be better suited than 810 nm, although both are questionable with plane-cut-fiber tips. Compactness and portability may be the only valid reasons for using laser diodes operating around 810 nm. At 1064 nm, the power delivered from plane-cut fiber tips should be less than 1.5 W, necessitating long exposures, or else an open catheter should be used. Fiber tips with distributed emission may be preferred, provided structural integrity can be maintained.
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