Little is known about the cross-talk between parathyroid hormone (PTH) related protein (PTHrP) and TGF-β1 in mesangial cells (MCs). Our results showed that PTHrP treatment (≤3 h) induced internalization of PTH1R (PTH/PTHrP receptor)–TβRII (TGF-β type 2 receptor) complex and suppressed TGF-β1-mediated Smad2/3 activation and fibronectin (FN) up-regulation. However, prolonged PTHrP treatment (12–48 h) failed to induce PTH1R–TβRII association and internalization. Total protein levels of PTH1R and TβRII were unaffected by PTHrP treatment. These results suggest that internalization of PTH1R and TβRII after short PTHrP treatment might not lead to their proteolytic destruction, allowing the receptors to be recycled back to the plasma membrane during prolonged PTHrP exposure. Receptor re-expression at the cell surface allows PTHrP to switch from its initial inhibitory effect to promote induction of FN. Our study thus demonstrates the dual roles of PTHrP on TGF-β1 signaling and FN up-regulation for the first time in glomerular MCs. These data also provided new insights to guide development of therapy for diabetic kidney disease (DKD).