Background: Competency-based programs are being adopted in medical education around the world. Competence Committees must visualize learner assessment data effectively to support their decision-making. Dashboards play an integral role in decision support systems in other fields. Design-based research allows the simultaneous development and study of educational environments. Methods: We utilized a design-based research process within the emergency medicine residency program at the University of Saskatchewan to identify the data, analytics, and visualizations needed by its Competence Committee, and developed a dashboard incorporating these elements. Narrative data were collected from two focus groups, five interviews, and the observation of two Competence Committee meetings. Data were qualitatively analyzed to develop a thematic framework outlining the needs of the Competence Committee and to inform the development of the dashboard. Results: The qualitative analysis identified four Competence Committee needs (Explore Workplace-Based Assessment Data, Explore Other Assessment Data, Understand the Data in Context, and Ensure the Security of the Data). These needs were described with narratives and represented through visualizations of the dashboard elements. Conclusions: This work addresses the practical challenges of supporting data-driven decision making by Competence Committees and will inform the development of dashboards for programs, institutions, and learner management systems.