- OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to investigate the efficacy of rehabilitation interventions in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation to provide guidance for clinical practice based on the best available evidence. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOMES: A systematic review of the literature from 1980-2005 was conducted focusing on rehabilitation interventions for ABI. The efficacy of a given intervention was classified as strong (supported by at least two randomized controlled trials (RCTs)), moderate (supported by a single RCT), or limited (supported by other types of studies in the absence of RCTs). RESULTS: The majority of interventions were only supported by limited evidence. However, there is moderate evidence that inpatient rehabilitation results in successful return to work and return to duty for the majority of military service members, increasing the intensity of rehabilitation reduces length of stay and improves short-term functional outcomes, and that direct patient involvement in neurorehabilitation goal setting results in significant improvements in reaching and maintaining those goals. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for studies of improved methodological quality into ABI rehabilitation.