Psychometric Properties of Performance-Based Functional Tests in Patients With Shoulder Pathologies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVES: To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize the reported psychometric properties of shoulder performance-based functional tests in patients with shoulder diseases. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health databases from inception until March 2019 were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized/prospective studies of patients with shoulder diseases that reported on the psychometric properties (reliability, validity, responsiveness) of performance-based functional tests (Standardized Index of Shoulder Function [FI2S], Functional Impairment Test-Hand and Neck/Shoulder/Arm, Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test, Timed Functional Arm and Shoulder Test, Shoulder Function Index [SFInX], and hand to neck, scapula, and opposite scapula). DATA EXTRACTION: We used the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments 2018 guideline for systematic reviews. We performed a qualitative synthesis in which the results were summarized based on reported measurement properties and study quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight eligible studies were included with 28 measures (16 reliability; 10 validity; 2 responsiveness). Performance-based functional tests reliability (test-retest, intra- and interrater) measures indicated excellent reliability properties. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ≥0.83 and standard error of the mean (SEM) ranged from 0.03-13.3 points. Validity (construct/convergent/concurrent) measures displayed correlations of -0.76 to 0.91 between performance-based functional tests and other patient-reported outcomes (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Constant, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index). Two studies assessed the responsiveness measures performance-based functional tests. Effect sizes of 0.44 and 1.50 and minimal clinically important differences of 10.3 using the anchor-based approach were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The FI2S and the SFInX are reliable, valid, and responsive in patients with shoulder-related diseases.


  • Nazari, Goris
  • Lu, Steve
  • MacDermid, Joy
  • Azizi, Aziza
  • Stokes, Nicole
  • Hiller, Samantha
  • Kim, Alex
  • Akhavan, Kiarash

publication date

  • June 2020