Osteoarthritis year in review 2019: rehabilitation and outcomes
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OBJECTIVE: Inactivity and obesity are risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The purpose of this review was to highlight intervention parameters of exercise and lifestyle diet interventions on clinical outcomes in OA that were published over 15 months, starting January 1, 2018. DESIGN: Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline (Pubmed, OVID), Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Embase from January 1, 2018 to April 1, 2019. Key words included osteoarthritis, exercise, physical activity, diet and nutrition. Randomized controlled designs and data synthesis papers (systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical guidelines) written in English, that included humans with OA of any joint were included. Trials were evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) critical appraisal tool and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were evaluated using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2). Intervention details (RCTs) and key finding from papers were summarized. RESULTS: Of 540 titles and abstracts retrieved, 147 full articles were reviewed and 53 met the inclusion criteria, comprised of 39 RCTs and 14 synthesis papers. By addressing inactivity, exercise effectively improves clinical outcomes and, based on low-moderate quality evidence, without further damage to cartilage or synovial tissue. By comparison, much less work focused on minimizing obesity. Diet must be combined with exercise to improve pain, but alone, can improve physical function. CONCLUSIONS: Future work is necessary to identify the ideal exercise frequency and intensity and lifestyle diet intervention parameters. Improved adherence to reporting guidelines in future work will greatly enhance the OA rehabilitation field.
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