Multiplexed confocal microscope with a refraction window scanner and a single-photon avalanche photodiode array detector Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Currently, the spinning disk confocal microscope is the most popular fast confocal imaging system. However, these instruments require a high pixel density camera detector, limiting their use in many applications. We have designed a multiplexed confocal scheme that performs raster scanning of a 32 × 32 foci array in which the output image is stationary after de-scanning. Our system can be coupled to a dense or sparse array detector, making it feasible to apply to rapid time-resolved photon counting, single-photon detection, and some super-resolution techniques.


  • Hirmiz, Nehad
  • Tsikouras, Anthony
  • Osterlund, Elizabeth J
  • Richards, Morgan
  • Andrews, David W
  • Fang, Qiyin

publication date

  • January 1, 2020