Manual segmentations of intracranial hemorrhage on non-contrast CT images are the gold-standard in measuring hematoma growth but are prone to rater variability.
We demonstrate that a convex optimization-based interactive segmentation approach can accurately and reliably measure intracranial hemorrhage growth.
Baseline and 16-h follow-up head non-contrast CT images of 46 subjects presenting with intracranial hemorrhage were selected randomly from the ANNEXA-4 trial imaging database. Three users semi-automatically segmented intracranial hemorrhage to measure hematoma volume for each timepoint using our proposed method. Segmentation accuracy was quantitatively evaluated compared to manual segmentations by using Dice similarity coefficient, Pearson correlation, and Bland–Altman analysis. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Dice similarity coefficient and intracranial hemorrhage volumes and volume change were assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient and minimum detectable change.
Among the three users, the mean Dice similarity coefficient, Pearson correlation, and mean difference ranged from 76.79% to 79.76%, 0.970 to 0.980 ( p < 0.001), and −1.5 to −0.4 ml, respectively, for all intracranial hemorrhage segmentations. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients between the three users for Dice similarity coefficient and intracranial hemorrhage volume were 0.846 and 0.962, respectively, and the corresponding minimum detectable change was 2.51 ml. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient for intracranial hemorrhage volume change ranged from 0.915 to 0.958 for each user compared to manual measurements, resulting in an minimum detectable change range of 2.14 to 4.26 ml.
We spatially and volumetrically validate a novel interactive segmentation method for delineating intracranial hemorrhage on head non-contrast CT images. Good spatial overlap, excellent volume correlation, and good repeatability suggest its usefulness for measuring intracranial hemorrhage volume and volume change on non-contrast CT images.