An MDS-specific frailty index based on cumulative deficits adds independent prognostic information to clinical prognostic scoring
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The frailty index (FI) is based on the principle that the more deficits an individual has, the greater their risk of adverse outcomes. It is expressed as a ratio of the number of deficits present to the total number of deficits considered. We developed an MDS-specific FI using a prospective MDS registry and assessed its ability to add prognostic power to conventional prognostic scores in MDS. The 42 deficits included in this FI included measurements of physical performance, comorbidities, laboratory values, instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life and performance status. Of 644 patients, 440 were eligible for FI calculation. The median FI score was 0.25 (range 0.05-0.67), correlated with age and IPSS/IPSS-R risk scores and discriminated overall survival. With a follow-up of 20 months, survival was 27 months (95% CI 24-30.4). By multivariate analysis, age >70, FI, transfusion dependence, and IPSS were significant covariates associated with OS. The incremental discrimination improvement of the frailty index was 37%. We derived a prognostic score with five risk groups and distinct survivals ranging from 7.4 months to not yet reached. If externally validated, the MDS-FI could be used as a tool to refine the risk stratification of current clinical prognostication models.
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