The impact of environmental cadmium exposure on type 2 diabetes risk: a protocol for an overview of systematic reviews
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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide epidemic, and while its etiology is polygenic, the role of environmental contaminant exposure in T2DM pathogenesis is of increasing importance. However, the evidence presented in systematic reviews on the relationship between cadmium exposure and T2DM development is inconsistent. This overview aims to assess existing evidence from systematic reviews linking cadmium exposure to T2DM and select metabolic disorders in humans. METHODS: Searches will be conducted in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GEOBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers (J.H and S.T.) will independently complete screening, data abstraction, risk of bias evaluation, and quality assessment. The primary outcome will be the association between cadmium exposure and T2DM prevalence. Secondary outcomes will include prediabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We will perform a meta-analysis if two or more studies assess similar populations, utilize analogous methods, have related study designs, and evaluate similar outcomes. DISCUSSION: This overview will assess current evidence from systematic reviews for the association between cadmium exposure and risk of T2DM and other metabolic morbidities. This overview may be helpful for policy-makers and healthcare teams aiming to mitigate T2DM risk in populations at risk of cadmium exposure. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019125956.
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