Diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage as an alternative to colectomy for fulminant Clostridioides difficile: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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PURPOSE: Surgical consultation is recommended for all patients with fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). If surgery is required, total abdominal colectomy (TAC) is most commonly performed. However, diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage have been recently developed as a potential colon-sparing approach to fulminant CDI. The aim of this review is to compare TAC and diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage for fulminant CDI. METHODS: Search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and PubMed was performed. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they compared TAC and diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage. The primary outcome was postoperative mortality, and the secondary outcome was postoperative complications. Quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: From 64 relevant citations, 5 studies (4 retrospective cohorts, 1 case series) with 3683 patients were included. Compared to TAC, diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage did not significantly reduce overall mortality (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.99, P = 0.77), rate of reoperation (RR 1.02, 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.63, P = 0.94), or overall postoperative complications (RR 0.51, 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.17, P = 0.11). Rates of colonic preservation with the use of diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage ranged from 76% to 100%. CONCLUSION: There does not appear to be a survival advantage with the use of diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage compared to TAC for fulminant CDI. However, diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage results in increased rates of colonic preservation, restoration of intestinal continuity, and laparoscopic surgery. This review is limited by the small number of included studies.
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