- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by a decline in the glomerular filtration rate. AKI affects up to 20% of hospitalized patients, and is even more common among intensive care unit admissions. Complications of AKI are related to uremia (encephalopathy, neuropathy, pericarditis), volume overload (pulmonary edema), and electrolyte disturbances (hyperkalemia). In addition to having increased associated morbidity and mortality, patients who develop AKI may never fully recover their baseline kidney function. Imaging can play a valuable role in the work-up of AKI. This article discusses the utility of imaging in characterizing AKI in adult patients in a hospital setting.