The Relationship Between the Critical Shoulder Angle and the Incidence of Chronic, Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears and Outcomes After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review
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PURPOSE: To summarize the available evidence and examine the relationship between the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and (1) the incidence of chronic full-thickness rotator cuff tears (RCTs) and (2) outcomes after rotator cuff repair (RCR). METHODS: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL was completed. Comparative studies were included and the influence of the CSA on either the incidence of chronic, full-thickness RCTs, or outcomes following RCR was evaluated. Demographic variables and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Seven comparative studies analyzed the influence of the CSA on the incidence of chronic, full-thickness RCTs (the control group constituted patients with a normal rotator cuff). High heterogeneity limited pooling of studies, but the majority concluded that a greater CSA significantly increased the likelihood of a chronic, full-thickness RCT. Conversely, 5 comparative studies analyzed the influence of CSA on outcomes following RCR, and although a greater CSA was associated with a greater re-tear rate, the majority reported that CSA did not significantly influence postoperative functional outcomes, including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), range of motion (ROM), and strength. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, there appears to be a relationship between a greater CSA and the presence of a chronic, full-thickness RCT. Furthermore, a greater CSA may be associated with a greater re-tear rate following RCR; however, CSA does not appear to influence functional outcomes following RCR. Despite these observations, the available evidence is of poor quality, and the clinical utility and role of the CSA in the diagnosis and surgical management of a chronic, full-thickness RCT remains in question. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV: Systematic review of Level II-IV studies.
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