Impact of Spontaneous Extracranial Bleeding Events on Health State Utility in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the ENGAGE AF‐TIMI 48 Trial
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BACKGROUND: The impact of different types of extracranial bleeding events on health-related quality of life and health-state utility among patients with atrial fibrillation is not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) Trial compared edoxaban with warfarin with respect to the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation. Data from the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, prospectively collected at 3-month intervals for up to 48 months, were used to estimate the impact of different categories of bleeding events on health-state utility over 12 months following the event. Longitudinal mixed-effect models revealed that major gastrointestinal bleeds and major nongastrointestinal bleeds were associated with significant immediate decreases in utility scores (-0.029 [-0.044 to -0.014; P<0.001] and -0.029 [-0.046 to -0.012; P=0.001], respectively). These effects decreased in magnitude over time, and were no longer significant for major nongastrointestinal bleeds at 9 months, but remained borderline significant for major gastrointestinal bleeds at 12 months. Clinically relevant nonmajor and minor bleeds were associated with smaller but measurable immediate impacts on utility (-0.010 [-0.016 to -0.005] and -0.016 [-0.024 to -0.008]; P<0.001 for both), which remained relatively constant and statistically significant over the 12 months following the bleeding event. CONCLUSIONS: All categories of bleeding events were associated with negative impacts on health-state utility in patients with atrial fibrillation. Major bleeds were associated with relatively large immediate decreases in utility scores that gradually diminished over 12 months; clinically relevant nonmajor and minor bleeds were associated with smaller immediate decreases in utility that persisted over 12 months. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00781391.
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