Background: D is a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that inhibits binding of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to its receptor. T is a mAb against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Targeting both PD-L1 and CTLA-4 may have additive/synergistic activity as the mechanisms of action of CTLA-4 and PD-L1 inhibition are non-redundant. This study evaluated whether combining PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibition would lead to improved pt survival vs BSC alone in rCRC. Methods: Pts with rCRC were randomized 2:1 to D+T vs BSC . Pts were eligible if they failed all standard regimens; containing a fluoropyrimidine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (and an EGFR inhibitor if Ras wild type). Prior treatment (Tx) with anti-VEGF agents or TAS-102 was permitted but not mandatory. Tx consisted of D (1500 mg) D1 q 28 days and T (75 mg) D1 for first 4 cycles, and all appropriate supportive measures. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and a two-sided p-value < 0.10 was considered statistically significant. Results: Between August 2016 and June 2017, 180 pts were enrolled and 179 treated as randomized. Pt baseline characteristics were balanced. 85% of pts received ≥ 90% of planned doses of D and T. No pts with known defective mismatch repair (dMMR) tumors were enrolled. With a median (med) follow-up of 15.2 months (mo), the med OS was 6.6 mo for D+T and 4.1 mo for BSC (p = 0.07; Hazard ratio (HR): 0.72, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.54–0.97). Med progression free survival was 1.8 mo and 1.9 mo respectively (HR 1.01, 90% CI 0.76–1.34; p=0.97). Disease control rate was 22.7% for D+T and 6.6% for BSC (p = 0.006). Grade 3/4 abdominal pain, fatigue, lymphocytosis and eosinophilia were significantly higher in D+T. At 16 weeks, there was significantly less deterioration on EORTC QLQ-C30 physical function for D+T. Confirmation of MMR status is ongoing. Conclusions: D+T significantly prolonged OS in pts with rCRC and preserved quality of life. Adverse events were more frequent with D+T. This is the first study showing that combined PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibition prolongs survival in pts with advanced refractory CRC not selected for dMMR. Clinical trial information: NCT02870920.