Can Self-Report Measures of Readiness for Change and Treatment Ambivalence Predict Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder? Academic Article uri icon

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  • Clients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that demonstrate observer-coded treatment ambivalence benefit from the addition of motivational interviewing (MI) to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; Button, Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016). While observer-coded assessment of ambivalence and readiness for change is resource-intensive, the present study investigates the use of more efficient self-report measures to predict treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 85) with GAD received CBT or MI-CBT and completed self-report measures of readiness for change (Change Questionnaire, Miller & Johnson, 2008) and ambivalence (Treatment Ambivalence Questionnaire, Purdon, Rowa, Gifford, McCabe, & Antony, 2012). Greater self-reported baseline readiness for change was associated with lower posttreatment worry and symptom severity and faster reduction in worry. Self-reported ambivalence was not associated with outcomes. Patients with less concern about adverse consequences of treatment who received CBT experienced greater increases in readiness for change than those receiving MI-CBT. We discuss implications for using these measures in clinical settings.


  • Lenton-Brym, Ariella P
  • Stewart, Kathleen E
  • Coyne, Alice E
  • Westra, Henny A
  • Constantino, Michael J
  • Antony, Martin

publication date

  • November 1, 2019