Physical activity and subjective well-being among people with spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis
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STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of cross-sectional, quasi-experimental and experimental studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is an association between physical activity (PA) and subjective well-being (SWB) among people living with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases (Embase, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO and SPORTDiscus) to identify studies involving people with SCI that included a measure of PA and at least one measure of SWB (for example, symptoms of depression, life satisfaction, mood). Relevant data were extracted from the studies and subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies were retrieved yielding 78 effect sizes and a total sample size of 2354. Overall, there were statistically significant, small- to medium-sized effects for the relationships between PA and SWB (broadly defined), PA and depressive symptoms, and PA and life satisfaction. Studies using experimental and quasi-experimental designs yielded larger effects for SWB (broadly defined) and life satisfaction, than studies using nonexperimental study designs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a small- to medium-sized positive relationship between PA and SWB among people with SCI that holds across a wide range of measures and operational definitions of these constructs.