Hands-on participation in the operating room (OR) is an integral component of surgical resident training. However, the implications of resident involvement in many orthopaedic procedures are not well defined. This study aims to assess the effect of resident involvement on short-term outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was queried to identify all patients who underwent ACLR from 2005 to 2012. Demographic variables, resident participation, 30-day complications, and intraoperative time parameters were assessed for all cases. Resident and nonresident cases were matched using propensity scores. Outcomes were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses, as well as stratified by resident level of training. Univariate analysis of 1,222 resident and 1,188 nonresident cases demonstrated no difference in acute postoperative complication rates between groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of overall complications based on resident level of training (p = 0.109). Operative time was significantly longer for cases in which a resident was involved (109.5 vs. 101.7 minutes; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified no significant predictors of major postoperative complications, while patient history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the only independent risk factor associated with minor complications. Resident involvement in ACLR was not associated with 30-day complications despite a slight increase in operative time. These findings provide reassurance that resident involvement in ACLR procedures is safe, although future investigations should focus on long-term postoperative outcomes.