“Postage Stamp” Fractures: A Systematic Review of Patient and Suture Anchor Profiles Causing Anterior Glenoid Rim Fractures After Bankart Repair
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PURPOSE: To systematically review patient and technical risk factors for anterior glenoid rim fractures through suture anchor points (i.e. "postage stamp") after arthroscopic Bankart repair. METHODS: An independent, duplicate search of Embase, Medline, and Web of Science databases, in addition to the past 5-year annual meeting abstracts of several prominent shoulder meetings, was conducted according to R-AMSTAR and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to identify English-language studies reporting this complication. RESULTS: A screen of 2,833 studies yielded 6 for inclusion herein. Data across 43 patients, aged 14 to 61 years (mean 24.4), 5% female, and who were followed for 4 to 108 months postoperatively, were reviewed. Only 1 of 6 studies (n = 2) reported postage stamp fracture in female patients. Median time from initial surgery to fracture ranged from 12 to 24 months. Five of 6 studies (n = 32) reported a median age at initial surgery of 25 years or younger (range 17-35). Four of 6 studies (n = 30) reported fracture mostly after sport involvement. All studies (n = 35) reported initial fixation with a median of 3 anchors or more, 3 of 5 studies (n = 26) reported fracture entirely after conventional knot-tying anchors, and 5 of 6 studies (n = 24) reported more fractures after absorbable suture anchor use. Fractures occurred entirely through anchor holes in 5 of 6 studies (n = 29) and mostly after osteolysis in 3 of 4 studies (n = 19). Management strategies after fracture included revision arthroscopic Bankart repair or open Bristow/Latarjet procedures. CONCLUSION: Postage stamp fractures were reported frequently in patients who were male, age 25 years or younger, and participants in sporting activities and in fractures initially stabilized with 3 or more anchors or conventional knot-tying anchors or that experienced osteolysis around anchor sites. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of level III and IV studies.
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