Quantifying cellular protrusion in alginate capsules with covalently crosslinked shells Journal Articles uri icon

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  • This work describes viability and distribution of INS-1E beta cells in shell-crosslinked alginate capsules, focussing on cells located near the capsule surface. Capsules were formed by air-shearing alginate suspensions of INS-1E cells into a gelling bath, and coating with poly-l-lysine (PLL) and 50% hydrolysed poly(methylvinylether-alt-maleic anhydride) to form crosslinked networks reinforcing the capsule surfaces. The percentage of cells at the capsule surface were determined using 2D and 3D confocal colocalization mapping. Encapsulated INS-1E cells showed high cell viability and progressive cell clustering out to six weeks. About 30% of cells were initially colocated with the 20 micrometer thick alginate-PLL-PMM50 shell, with 7% of cells protruded at the capsule surfaces, both reflecting random cell distributions. Protruding cells may cause cell-based immune responses, weaken capsules, and potentially result in cell escape from the capsules. The data shown indicate that reinforcing capsules with crosslinked shells may assist in preventing cell exposure and escape.


  • Stover, Harald
  • Johnson, Mitchell A
  • Kleinberger, Rachelle
  • Abu Helal, Ali
  • Latchminarine, Nicole
  • Ayyash, Ahmed
  • Shi, Shanna
  • Burke, Nicholas AD
  • Holloway, Alison
  • Stöver, Harald DH

publication date

  • July 4, 2019