Objective: Subglottic squamous cell carcinoma is a rare subsite of laryngeal cancer that behaves more aggressively and portends a worse prognosis. Using a population-based cancer registry, our objective was to report overall survival (OS) and laryngectomy-free survival (LFS) in patients diagnosed with subglottic squamous cell carcinoma, and to determine whether primary laryngectomy results in improved survival. Methods: This retrospective population-based study considered patients with a new diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in the province of Ontario over a 15-year period (1995–2009). The Ontario Cancer Registry was examined for patients with the diagnosis of interest during the period of interest. Linked population-based databases were used to obtain patient demographics, comorbidity measures, staging, survival, and primary treatment with laryngectomy. Results: Of 4927 patients identified to have laryngeal carcinoma, 89 were defined as having primary subglottic carcinoma (1.8%). In the subglottic cohort, 68 patients were men (76.4%), and mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (interquartile range: 60–77 years). The 5-year OS was 47.2%, and the 5-year LFS was 31.5%. In 13 patients (15%), the primary treatment was laryngectomy, which, compared with primary radiation, did not predict for improved OS. No differences in OS or LFS were observed during the 15-year study period (OS p = 0.42, LFS p = 0.83). Conclusions: The survival of patients with subglottic carcinoma is poor and has remained stable over time (1995–2009). Compared with primary radiation, primary treatment with laryngectomy does not appear to improve OS.