What Influences Educators’ Design Preferences for Bullying Prevention Programs? Multi-level Latent Class Analysis of a Discrete Choice Experiment
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We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the anti-bullying (AB) program preferences of 1080 junior kindergarten to Grade 8 educators. Participants chose between hypothetical AB programs that varied combinations of 12 design attributes. Multi-level latent class analysis yielded three classes: All-in Supervisors (21.5%) preferred that all teaching staff supervise playgrounds and hallways; Facilitators (61.6%) preferred that students take ownership of AB activities with 25% of educators supervising playgrounds and hallways; and Reluctant Delegators (16.9%) preferred delegating the supervision of playgrounds and hallways to non-teaching staff. This class reported higher dispositional reactance, more implementation barriers, and more psychological reactance to these initiatives. They were less sensitive to social influences and less intent on participating in AB activities. Multi-level analysis showed a greater proportion of Reluctant Delegators clustered in one of the two groups of schools. The program choices of all classes were sensitive to the support of principals, colleagues, students, and, to a lesser extent, parents. All classes preferred programs conducted from kindergarten through Grade 12 that addressed the problems underlying bullying while valuing firm and consistent consequences for all students. Educators preferred AB programs selected by individual schools, rather than governments.