The long-term outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is unknown.
A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken of patients with grade 3 obesity and type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) undergoing LAGB. Metabolic outcomes and quality of life (QoL) were assessed before and 5 years after LAGB.
At 5 years, data for 22 out of 23 patients with type 2 diabetes and 51 out of 53 with IFG were available. Mean(s.d.) excess weight loss was 41(25) and 41(27) per cent in patients with type 2 diabetes and IFG respectively, and was associated with a significant decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels, and in liver steatosis. There were significant increases in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, disposition index, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and QoL (Nottingham Health Profile). Good metabolic control (HbA1c 7 per cent or less) was obtained in 13 diabetic patients, but complete diabetes remission was maintained in only four. Longer duration of diabetes, and poor preoperative glucose control and β-cell function at baseline were associated with a less favourable outcome.
LAGB improved metabolic outcomes and QoL in patients with grade 3 obesity with IFG or type 2 diabetes but rarely led to prolonged remission in long-standing diabetes.