- BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemic episodes are described after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of hypoglycemia after a 75 g oral glucose load (OGTT) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and to identify predicting factors. SETTING: Bariatric surgery referral center. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 351 consecutive patients before and 12 months after bariatric surgery, on whom an OGTT was performed. The main outcome measure was postchallenge hypoglycemia (PCHy), defined as a 120 minute plasma glucose value<2.8 mmol/L (50.4 mg/dL). RESULTS: Only patients with an RYGB presented with PCHy. It occurred in 23 patients or a prevalence of 10.4% after an RYGB. The OR was 25.5 (95% CI 3.4-191; P<.001) compared with before surgery. Patients with PCHy after surgery had a lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and a lower 2-hour postchallenge value before surgery. Before surgery, patients with normal glucose tolerance had an increased risk of PCHy after surgery (OR 8.6, 95% CI 2.0-37.6; P< .001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OGTT-induced hypoglycemia is increased 25.5 times, 12 months after an RYGB. This is not observed after a gastric banding.