Low‐depth sequencing for copy number abnormalities in multiple myeloma supersedes fluorescent in situ hybridization in scope and resolution
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy that relies on cytogenetic determination of copy number abnormalities (CNAs) for prognosis and management. Low-depth whole genome sequencing (LD-WGS) is a cost-effective alternative to targeted genomics for CNA detection, but its value has yet to be explored in MM. DNA from CD138+ cells from MM patients were sequenced using an Illumina NextSeq at <1x depth (ultralow-depth). Subsampling analysis and window size adjustment were performed for determining sensitivity limits and results compared to fluorescent in-Situ hybridization (FISH). CNA calls made down to 5 million (M) reads were comparable to those at 20 M reads at a window size of 100 kb had a sensitivity and specificity of 93%, 92% and an area under the curve of 0.94. All CNAs detected by FISH on the MM samples were also detected by LD-WGS; the latter detected a further 36 focal CNAs not detected by FISH. Cost per sample of LD-WGS was significantly lower for our organization than FISH testing. LD-WGS for MM is significantly more sensitive than targeted technologies such as FISH in CNA detection and resolution, provides a more cost-effective option for clinical purposes and potential for exploring prognostically relevant and drug discovery targets.
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