Chemokines are peptide mediators involved in normal development, hematopoietic and immune regulation, wound healing, and inflammation. Among the chemokines is CXCL12, which binds principally to its receptor CXCR4 and regulates leukocyte precursor homing to bone marrow and other sites. This role of CXCL12/CXCR4 is “commandeered” by cancer cells to facilitate the spread of CXCR4-bearing tumor cells to tissues with high CXCL12 concentrations. High CXCR4 expression by cancer cells predisposes to aggressive spread and metastasis and ultimately to poor patient outcomes. As well as being useful as a marker for disease progression, CXCR4 is a potential target for anticancer therapies. It is possible to interfere directly with the CXCL12:CXCR4 axis using peptide or small-molecular-weight antagonists. A further opportunity is offered by promoting strategies that downregulate CXCR4 pathways: CXCR4 expression in the tumor microenvironment is modulated by factors such as hypoxia, nucleosides, and eicosanoids. Another promising approach is through targeting PPAR to suppress CXCR4 expression. Endogenous PPARsuch as 15-deoxy--PGand synthetic agonists such as the thiazolidinediones both cause downregulation of CXCR4 mRNA and receptor. Adjuvant therapy using PPARagonists may, by stimulating PPAR-dependent downregulation of CXCR4 on cancer cells, slow the rate of metastasis and impact beneficially on disease progression.