Wearable sensors can provide detailed information on human movement but the clinical impact of this information remains limited. We propose a machine learning approach, using wearable sensor data, to identify subject-specific changes in gait patterns related to improvements in clinical outcomes. Eight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) completed two gait trials before and one following an exercise intervention. Wearable sensor data (e.g., 3-dimensional (3D) linear accelerations) were collected from a sensor located near the lower back, lateral thigh and lateral shank during level treadmill walking at a preferred speed. Wearable sensor data from the 2 pre-intervention gait trials were used to define each individual’s typical movement pattern using a one-class support vector machine (OCSVM). The percentage of strides defined as outliers, based on the pre-intervention gait data and the OCSVM, were used to define the overall change in an individual’s movement pattern. The correlation between the change in movement patterns following the intervention (i.e., percentage of outliers) and improvement in self-reported clinical outcomes (e.g., pain and function) was assessed using a Spearman rank correlation. The number of outliers observed post-intervention exhibited a large association (ρ = 0.78) with improvements in self-reported clinical outcomes. These findings demonstrate a proof-of-concept and a novel methodological approach for integrating machine learning and wearable sensor data. This approach provides an objective and evidence-informed way to understand clinically important changes in human movement patterns in response to exercise therapy.