Risk factors for diabetic kidney disease in adults with longstanding type 1 diabetes: results from the Canadian Study of Longevity in Diabetes
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Objectives: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to explore clinical and biochemical factors, including the achievement of American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended targets associated with DKD in people living with T1D for ≥50 years. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study of 75 participants enrolled in the Canadian Study of Longevity in T1D. We explored diabetes-related complications, including neuropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and DKD. Study participants were dichotomized based on the achievement of ADA recommended targets as the low-target group (achieving ≤4 targets, n = 31) and high-target group (achieving >4 targets, n = 44). The outcome of interest was DKD defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values <60/mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or 24-h albumin excretion >30 mg. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for DKD with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Of the 75 participants with prolonged T1D duration (45% male, mean age 66 years), 25 participants had DKD and 50 did not. There was no statistical difference between the high- and low-target groups in terms of age and body mass index. eGFR was significantly higher and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly lower in the high-target group. Older age at diagnosis of T1D and lower frequency component to high-frequency component ratio increased the odds of having DKD. Conclusions: In adults with prolonged T1D duration, older age at diagnosis and lower heart rate variability may be associated with DKD.
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