Proteomics analysis of chinese hamster ovary cells undergoing apoptosis during prolonged cultivation
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The degradation of environmental conditions, such as nutrient depletion and accumulation of toxic waste products over time, often lead to premature apoptotic cell death in mammalian cell cultures and suboptimal protein yield. Although apoptosis has been extensively researched, the changes in the whole cell proteome during prolonged cultivation, where apoptosis is a major mode of cell death, have not been examined. To our knowledge, the work presented here is the first whole cell proteome analysis of non-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells. Flow cytometry analyses of various activated caspases demonstrated the onset of apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells during prolonged cultivation was primarily through the intrinsic pathway. Differential in gel electrophoresis proteomic study comparing protein samples collected during cultivation resulted in the identification of 40 differentially expressed proteins, including four cytoskeletal proteins, ten chaperone and folding proteins, seven metabolic enzymes and seven other proteins of varied functions. The induction of seven ER chaperones and foldases is a solid indication of the onset of the unfolded protein response, which is triggered by cellular and ER stresses, many of which occur during prolonged batch cultures. In addition, the upregulation of six glycolytic enzymes and another metabolic protein emphasizes that a change in the energy metabolism likely occurred as culture conditions degraded and apoptosis advanced. By identifying the intracellular changes during cultivation, this study provides a foundation for optimizing cell line-specific cultivation processes, prolonging longevity and maximizing protein production.
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