Attenuated inflammatory response of monocyte-derived macrophage from patients with BD: a preliminary report
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BACKGROUND: Innate immune system dysfunction has been recognized as an important element in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the response of macrophages derived from patients in the early stages and late stages of BD and healthy subjects. METHODS: Human monocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with BD type I (n = 18)-further classified into early- and late stage BD patients according to their functioning- and from healthy individuals (n = 10) were differentiated into macrophages in vitro. Monocyte-derived macrophages (M) were exposed to IFNγ plus LPS-M(IFNγ + LPS)- or IL-4-M(IL-4)-to induce their polarization into the classical (also called M1) or alternative (also called M2) activation phenotypes, respectively; or either Mψ were not exposed to any stimuli characterizing the resting state (denominated M0). In vitro secretion of cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, was used as an index of macrophage activity. RESULTS: M(IFNγ + LPS) from late-stage BD patients produced less amount of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 when compared to early-stage BD patients and healthy controls. Following alternative activation, M(IL-4) derived from late-stage patients secreted less IL-6 compared to the other groups. TNFα was less secreted by all macrophage phenotypes derived from late-stage patients when compared to healthy controls only (p < 0.005). Mψ from late-stage patients exhibited lower production of IL-1β and IL-10 compared to macrophages from healthy subjects and early-stage patients respectively. Interestingly, cytokines secretion from M(IFNγ + LPS), M(IL-4) and Mψ were similar between early-stage patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a progressive dysfunction in the response of peripheral innate immune cells of BD patients in the late stages of the illness. This failure in the regulation of the immune system function may be implicated in the multisystemic progression of BD.
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