Differentiating platinum coated brachytherapy seeds and gold fiducial markers with varying off-resonant frequency offsets
- Additional Document Info
- View All
PURPOSE: To develop an off-resonant frequency filtered method to selectively differentiate between implanted gold fiducial markers and platinum coated brachytherapy seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The magnetic susceptibilities for gold fiducial markers and brachytherapy seeds differ in magnitude and also in their signs, resulting in B0-field inhomogeneity patterns with opposite main lobes. A pulse sequence used to localize brachytherapy seeds with positive contrast, centre-out radial sampling with off-resonance reception (co-RASOR), was used to reconstruct images with a range of off-resonant frequency offsets. The proposed method utilizes two frequency filters to selectively reconstruct maximum intensity projections through band-pass regions where each seed has its maximal localized hyperintensity. Seeds were simulated and then placed in gel and tissue phantoms to validate the technique using orthogonal 2D slices with seeds both parallel and perpendicular to the B0-field. RESULTS: Dual-plane 2D co-RASOR sequences were reconstructed off-resonance with applied frequency filters to create two projections displaying each seed, which were then colour-coded to negative and positive frequencies. Phantom validation showed that each seed contains its maximal CNR in opposing frequency regions as predicted. Local maxima can also appear in both negative and positive frequency regions. The relative difference between the signal of each seed and these local maxima ranged from 1.19 to 3.73, and an image threshold was determined in all cases. Tissue validation showed the technique differentiates seeds correctly and is limited by the hyperintensity patterns observed in the co-RASOR method. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-plane co-RASOR offers sub-millimetre positive contrast from implanted seeds that contain unique off-resonant frequency maxima, which frequency filters can selectively differentiate.
has subject area