Brief Assessment of Cigarette Demand (BACD): Initial development and correlational results in adults and adolescents.
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Developing briefer behavioral economic measures is an important priority to ensure that these measures can be used in a variety of different contexts and to reduce participant burden. We developed and sought to validate a Brief Assessment of Cigarette Demand (BACD). A 17-item Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) and a 3-item BACD were completed concurrently in 2 community samples of smokers (Study 1, adult smokers [n = 80] with substance use disorders; Study 2, adolescent smokers [n = 81]). Responses on the CPT and BACD were compared on the following demand indices: (a) intensity (the number of cigarettes requested at no cost), (b) Omax (the maximum expenditure on cigarettes in a 24-hr period), and (c) breakpoint (the point at which consumption is totally suppressed/no cigarettes are purchased). Correlations of demand indices with cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence were calculated. Measures of cigarette demand on the CPT and BACD were significantly correlated, albeit at very different magnitudes, for all 3 indices in the adult sample (intensity, r = .86; breakpoint, r = .23; and Omax, r = .43) and for 2 of the indices in the adolescent sample (intensity, r = .97; breakpoint, r = .33). The CPT and BACD relationships with smoking and nicotine dependence were similar for breakpoint and intensity but not for Omax. As initial findings were mixed, additional validation work is recommended to improve psychometric properties before adoption. Valid brief measures of demand could have utility for research and treatment of addictive disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).