Randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccine in patients with heart failure to reduce adverse vascular events (IVVE): Rationale and design
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BACKGROUND: Influenza is associated with an increase in the risk of cardiac and other vascular events. Observational data and small randomized trials suggest that influenza vaccination may reduce such adverse vascular events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial patients with heart failure are randomized to receive either inactivated influenza vaccine or placebo annually for 3 years. Patients aged ≥18 years with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure and NYHA functional class II, III and IV are eligible. Five thousand patients from 10 countries where influenza vaccination is not common (Asia, the Middle East, and Africa) have been enrolled. The primary outcome is a composite of the following: cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and hospitalizations for heart failure using standardized criteria. Analyses will be based on comparing event rates between influenza vaccine and control groups and will include time to event, rate comparisons using Poisson methods, and logistic regression. The analysis will be conducted by intention to treat i.e. patients will be analyzed in the group in which they were assigned. Multivariable secondary analyses to assess whether variables such as age, sex, seasonality modify the benefits of vaccination are also planned for the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: This is the largest randomized trial to test if influenza vaccine compared to control reduces adverse vascular events in high risk individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinicaltrials.govNCT02762851.
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