Use of Quantitative T2-Weighted and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Texture Features of Bladder Cancer and Extravesical Fat for Local Tumor Staging After Transurethral Resection
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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) texture features of bladder cancer and extravesical fat are predictive of muscle invasive bladder cancer (category ≥ T2) and extravesical (category ≥ T3) disease after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients (27 men, nine women; mean age, 71 years) were identified who underwent post-TURBT MRI followed by cystectomy without intervening treatment from August 2011 through October 2016. Texture features of bladder cancer and extravesical fat adjacent to the tumor on T2-weighted and ADC images were extracted and compared between category ≤ T2 versus ≥ T3 and category T1 versus ≥ T2 tumors by means of Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and ROC curves were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-six of the 36 (72%) tumors were ≥ T2, and 53% (19/36) were ≥ T3. In multivariate analysis, bladder cancer entropy on T2-weighted images (p = 0.006; odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% CI, 1.49-20.41; AUC, 0.85) and ADC maps (p = 0.019; OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.13-5.31; AUC, 0.80) and extravesical fat entropy on T2-weighted images (p = 0.005; OR, 17.50; 95% CI, 3.01-200.80; AUC, 0.84) and ADC maps (p = 0.002; OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.90-32.40; AUC, 0.82) remained greater for ≥ T3 than for ≤ T2 tumors. In multivariate analysis, bladder cancer entropy on ADC maps (p = 0.027; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-5.03; AUC, 0.76) and extravesical fat entropy on T2-weighted images (p = 0.010; OR, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.25-3.79; AUC, 0.78) and ADC maps (p = 0.029; OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.25-16.97; AUC, 0.74) remained greater for category ≥ T2 compared with category T1 tumors. CONCLUSION: Greater entropy of primary bladder cancers and extravesicular fat was observed in category ≥ T3 than in category ≤ T2 and in category ≥ T2 than in category T1 tumors. MRI texture analysis can help with local bladder cancer staging in patients who have undergone TURBT and may serve as a biomarker for higher local category bladder cancers.
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