As cancer survivorship increases, there is a need for additional and more complex rehabilitation services. The Partners in Cancer Rehabilitation Research group held a 3-day invitational working meeting aimed at defining the state of the science in cancer rehabilitation research and identifying key areas for development of research and education. In May 2012, 29 participants gathered to present their current work, review a synthesis of the current literature, generate ideas about research and education gaps, and develop consensus on priority areas. The conclusion of the meeting was that a main research priority is to develop and test personalized rehabilitation interventions and brief measures to identify the presence and severity of disabling sequelae. The education consensus statement concluded that a clear description of cancer rehabilitation and its mandate should be developed as a precursor to education activities, including both a conceptualization of complex interdisciplinary rehabilitation and the roles of individual professions, and further, that there is a great need to increase awareness among health professionals, patients, and families of the need for and general effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation. Numerous specific recommendations were also put forward, and it is hoped that those recommendations will provide the foundation for a new and productive era of research and will play a role in the improvement of functional health and participation outcomes for cancer survivors.