Nomogram to assess survival benefit of new over historical agents as salvage therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) in non-randomized trials. Conference Paper uri icon

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  • e16012 Background: Surrogate endpoints of benefit in mUC phase 2 salvage therapy trials are necessary to identify promising drugs, particularly for checkpoint inhibitors where response and progression-free survival are inadequate. We developed a nomogram using prognostic variables from phase 2 trials of historical agents to estimate 12 month survival to which observed survival in phase 2 trials could be compared. Methods: Data were obtained from phase 2 trials of salvage therapy for mUC for survival and 5 prognostic factors: hemoglobin, performance status, liver metastasis, treatment-free interval and albumin. Patients (pts) were randomly allotted to discovery:validation (DIS:VAL) datasets in a 2:1 ratio. A nomogram was developed for estimating 12-month survival. Calibration plots were constructed in the VAL dataset by plotting estimated vs. observed 12-mo survival and data bootstrapped to assess performance. The nomogram was applied to external nonrandomized salvage therapy data: 1) retrospective pemetrexed data or 2) trials of atezolizumab: PCD4989g and IMvigor210. Results: Data were available from 340 pts receiving sunitinib (n = 77), everolimus (n = 45), docetaxel + vandetanib or placebo (n = 109), pazopanib (n = 42), paclitaxel (n = 36) and docetaxel (n = 31). Calibration and prognostic ability of the model was acceptable (c-index = 0.634, 95% CI = 0.596-0.652). Observed 12-month survival for pts on pemetrexed (n = 127, 23.5% [95% CI: 16.2%-31.7%]) were similar to nomogram-predicted survival (19% [95% CI: 16.5-21.5], P> 0.05), while observed result with atezolizumab (n = 403, 39.0% [95% CI: 34.1-43.9]) exceeded predicted result (24.6% [95% CI: 23.4-25.8], P< 0.001). Conclusions: Atezolizumab was associated with a significantly longer 12-mo survival compared to nomogram-predicted survival while pemetrexed was not. This nomogram incorporates baseline prognostic factors to provide expected 12-mo survival of phase 2 patient cohorts with which to compare observed survival, providing a useful tool to quantify benefit in phase II studies while controlling the impact of clinical variables.


  • Sonpavde, Guru
  • Pond, Gregory
  • Rosenberg, Jonathan E
  • Choueiri, Toni K
  • Bellmunt, Joaquim
  • Regazzi, Ashley Marie
  • Mullane, Stephanie Anne
  • Necchi, Andrea
  • Raggi, Daniele
  • Lee, Jae-Lyun
  • Lee, Soon Il
  • Simpson, Joseph
  • Derleth, Christina Louise
  • Shih-Wen, Lin
  • Bajorin, Dean F

publication date

  • May 20, 2017