Current use and costs of electronic health records for clinical trial research: a descriptive study
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BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) may support randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We aimed to describe the current use and costs of EHRs in RCTs, with a focus on recruitment and outcome assessment. METHODS: This descriptive study was based on a PubMed search of RCTs published since 2000 that evaluated any medical intervention with the use of EHRs. Cost information was obtained from RCT investigators who used EHR infrastructures for recruitment or outcome measurement but did not explore EHR technology itself. RESULTS: We identified 189 RCTs, most of which (153 [81.0%]) were carried out in North America and were published recently (median year 2012 [interquartile range 2009-2014]). Seventeen RCTs (9.0%) involving a median of 732 (interquartile range 73-2513) patients explored interventions not related to EHRs, including quality improvement, screening programs, and collaborative care and disease management interventions. In these trials, EHRs were used for recruitment (14 [82%]) and outcome measurement (15 [88%]). Overall, in most of the trials (158 [83.6%]), the outcome (including many of the most patient-relevant clinical outcomes, from unscheduled hospital admission to death) was measured with the use of EHRs. The per-patient cost in the 17 EHR-supported trials varied from US$44 to US$2000, and total RCT costs from US$67 750 to US$5 026 000. In the remaining 172 RCTs (91.0%), EHRs were used as a modality of intervention. INTERPRETATION: Randomized controlled trials are frequently and increasingly conducted with the use of EHRs, but mainly as part of the intervention. In some trials, EHRs were used successfully to support recruitment and outcome assessment. Costs may be reduced once the data infrastructure is established.