A new species of Gentianella (Gentianaceae) is described from the flora of Peru. Gentianella canoi S.J.Castillo & J.S.Pringle sp. nov., which inhabits high Andean rocky slopes of the Department of Ancash. This new species is related to G. gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S.Pringle and G. tristicha (Gilg) J.S.Pringle, with which it shares a caespitose habit, numerous very narrow basal leaves, floriferous stems more than 20 cm high, and widely open corollas. It is differentiated from G. gilgiana mainly by its inflorescences, with 5–11 flowers —vs. 2 or 3—, and corollas 21–28 mm long —vs. 45–55 mm—; from G. tristicha in its opposite leaves —vs. verticillated—; and of both species in their pale yellow corollas —vs. red vermillion in G. gilgiana, lilac in G. tristicha— and in the absence of trichomes in the adaxial surface of the corolla.