Mechanisms Employed by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 to Inhibit the Interferon Response
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The interferon (IFN) family of cytokines constitutes potent inducers of innate antiviral responses that also influence adaptive immune processes. Despite eliciting such formidable cellular defense responses, viruses have evolved ways to interfere with the IFN response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an enveloped, dsDNA virus and a member of the herpesvirus family. Like other herpesvirus family members, HSV-1 has become highly specialized for its host and establishes a lifelong infection by undergoing latency within neurons. A leading reason for the success of HSV-1 as a pathogen results from its ability to evade the IFN response. Specifically, HSV-1 encodes several proteins that function to inhibit both IFN production and subsequent signal transduction. This review will identify and summarize the current understanding of viral proteins encoded by HSV-1 involved in the evasion of the IFN response.
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